Can On-Farm NIR Analysis Improve Feed Management?

Farm Food Management 2Feed cost is one of the largest expenses on dairy farms. In addition to being a major cost, over feeding, under feeding or feeding an improperly balanced diet can impair cow health, decrease milk production, and result in negative environmental impacts. Regular dry matter (DM) testing of feeds and rebalancing the ration to compensate for DM changes ensures that dairy producers are feeding the ration formulated by their nutritionist. Where trade names appear, no discrimination is intended, and no endorsement by Penn State Extension or by the author is implied.

Frequency and Methods of Dry Matter Determination

The frequency at which dairy farms test forages for DM varies from farm to farm. Penn State recommends weekly testing of silage DM. While some test this frequently, many dairy farmers or their nutritionists will test once or twice a month. Less frequent testing results in a greater chance of missing a change in silage DM and an improperly formulated ration.

The most common methods of on-farm DM analysis are using a Koster tester or microwave oven. Either of these methods will work, but they can take 20 to 30 minutes and must be monitored to make sure the samples are not over heated.

Near Infrared (NIR) Analysis

Near-infrared technology has been used in commercial laboratories to analyze feed and other agricultural products for years. NIR measures the light (in the near-infrared spectrum) reflected off of a sample of interest when analyzed in a spectrophotometer. NIR is faster and lower cost than using traditional wet chemistry methods to determine the nutritional composition and DM of feeds.

Only recently has NIR technology been applied to an on-farm setting. On-farm systems work similarly to NIR used in a lab setting; a feed sample is put in front of a scanner, the scanner analyzes the feed sample, and the result is returned to the farmer or nutritionist who then can make management decisions regarding the feed.

On-farm NIR greatly decreases the amount of time it takes for a farmer to receive information about the composition of feed being fed to his dairy cows. Traditional wet chemistry methods of feed analysis often take a week or more from the time the sample is collected to the time the results are returned to the farmer or nutritionist. With laboratory NIR the turnaround time from when a sample is collected to the time the results are back can be decreased to a few days. With on-farm NIR results are returned instantly to the farmer, allowing management decisions to be made on the spot.

Application of On-farm NIR Analysis

One on-farm NIR system available is the Dinamica General precisionFEEDING system. This system utilizes an NIR analyzer mounted in the bucket of the tractor. Each time feed is scooped into the bucket the analyzer scans the feed and the amount of feed needed to be added to the mixer is adjusted based on the DM content of the feed. Samples are also analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, ash, fat, and starch.
Dry matter content of corn silage can vary widely from day to day. While the average of these readings would be around 32 or 33% DM, the range went from as low as 25% DM to as high as 41% DM over the six months shown here. Much of the variation in DM content, especially the very low readings, is likely related to precipitation events. By adjusting the ration on the spot, cows receive a more consistent ration from day to day and feed waste can potentially be reduced.

As an example, if a ration calls for 50 pounds of corn silage on an as-fed basis and DM is assumed to be 33%, 16.5 pounds of corn silage DM will be fed. For each one-point deviation of the actual %DM from the assumed %DM the dairy farmer will over or under feed 0.5 pounds of corn silage per cow per day. If the actual DM of the corn silage is 28% the cows will only receive 14 pounds of corn silage on a dry matter basis.

An Italian study compared dairy farms using on-farm NIR systems (dg precisionFEEDING System) with farms not using the system (study summary). In this study, feed costs were $0.09 per cow per day less and milk production was 5.6 pounds more per cow per day (65.9 vs. 71.5 pounds/cow per day) on farms using the NIR system than on farms not using the system. For a 200-cow dairy this would result in approximately $73,584 of increased revenue from milk sales (assuming $18/cwt milk) and a $6,570 savings in feed cost per year. Increased production was attributed to a more consistent ration being delivered to the herd. Lower feed cost was attributed to being able to feed more precisely to the needs of the herd and thus decreasing feed waste. The study also reported an improvement in the general health of the herd, based on changes in blood parameters and a reduction in mastitis.

Exactly how Animal Agriculture Impacts The Environment?

Animal Enviromental Impact 2We might believe it matters not way too much just what we eat or how our food is produced. Nevertheless, it ends up that the whole planet is now based on the food choices each people makes on a daily basis. It is real to say that many people conscientiously try to reduce their effect on the environment by walking, bike-riding or car-pooling instead of driving, by increasing their very own veggies in your home, as well as by minimizing power consumption. Yet, there is one act that could limit the impact on the environment immensely, which is to just pick what we eat a little bit more carefully.

Extinction of types and danger to water products

Meat as well as dairy manufacturing makes use of a third of world earth’s fresh consuming water. Pet agriculture makes use of 55 % of our fresh water reserves. In order to produce a one pound beef burger, around 3000 litres of fresh water is called for, which includes irrigation of the grains and also lawns in feed plus water for alcohol as well as processing. Consider that a typical bath takes around 80 litres of water whereas the ordinary electrical shower sprays out around 6 litres a minute.

Methane gas from cattle overshadows the damages to the environment from carbon emissions as a result of international production and also transport. Actually, 51 % of all greenhouse gas exhausts originate from pet farming, baseding on the Food and also Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Furthermore, cultivatable land is consumed and forests are hacked to make more space for cattle ranches. Data show that between 4000 to 8000 square meters of virgin rainforest is removed every minute and 91 % of this logging is to make even more area available for pet agriculture. On a daily basis, animal varieties are lost because of rainforest devastation. Animal farming is amongst the leading causes of ocean dead zones, water pollution as well as wild environment devastation.

A person who consumes a vegan diet plan makes 50 % much less CARBON DIOXIDE as well as makes use of an 11th of the nonrenewable fuel sources, a 13th of the water and an 18th of the land as compared to a meat-eater, according to a research study led by ecologist Peter Scarborough and also his team of scientists. Going vegan or taking steps to reduce and/or eventually get rid of animal healthy protein from our diet plans is the most efficient method to decrease our CO2 discharges as well as conserve our water as well as forests.

Popular Machines That Are Used By Farmers

With the increase in population of the country, the demand for food and organic products also surges. The owners of the farm land and farmers have to work hard in order to produce more products, so as to meet the requirements of the ascending population. Everybody is aware of the technological advancements that have occurred in the recent times and how it has changed the way we live. The technology has left its impact on the agriculture sector as well. There are so many farms and agricultural machines that are brought into use by the farmers today. These machines are expensive, but the money is worth when people see the amount of work they can handle along with great precision. The product output can be significantly increased by using these machines. I have outlined some of the agricultural machines that are popular in the agricultural sector.


TractorFarm Machine 2


A tractor is one of the most commonly used vehicles on the farm. A tractor is used to pull heavy objects and for supplying products needed in the production. A tractor has four wheels, out of which the front pair is smaller than the rear ones. The rear ones are like 5 times larger than the front pair. The tractors have become a lot more modernized today and they are now equipped with more comfortable seats, body and temperature control and durable wheels.


It is vital to cultivate the soil before planting. Stirring and pulverizing the soil are the two best methods to cultivate and aerate the soil. A cultivator is used for this purpose and it has two big wheels at the back and comparatively smaller wheels in the front. A cultivator also has shanks or teeth that will cultivate the soil after the machine is turned on.

Broadcast seeder

A broadcast seeder is a machine that is attached to the tractor, so that the seeds are distributed all over the land in an appropriate way. The seeds are present in a large hopper, which has got multiple blades inside. You will also find the rotating disks, which will spread the seeds in different patterns.


When the crop is fully grown, then it is imperative to harvest it on time to avoid it from getting damaged. So, a harvester is used for this purpose. A harvester can harvest all kinds of grains, chop the plants and remove the finished product as well. You can also clean the debris with the harvester.


The biggest concern while growing the crops is pest infestation. Harmful pests can ruin the entire crop and eliminate any chances of making money for the farmers. Therefore, to avoid such a dreadful scenario, sprayers are used to kill the pests, so that the crops can be saved from any damages. This equipment is also useful in the bigger land area. Many people are also using the self-propelled row crop sprayer that has four wheels. This sprayer is found at the back of this equipment. Make sure that you use organic pesticides to spray on the crops

Close Look At Natural Farming

Natural Farming 4Farming is the only indispensable occupation, as it is the source of sustaining life. In addition, this life support system seems to be undergoing a lot of change in terms of cultivation as well as marketing. This mutual change of perception towards farming can be attributed to the fact, that day-by-day, there has been an increase in population, leading to an increased demand for food too Considering this huge demand for vegetables and a gap between the demand and supply of vegetables has led to the introduction of conventional farming to match the requirement. However, various experts have been saying that the yield produced of natural farming are rich with nutrients and, therefore, people should avoid conventional farming. So, before we dig deep into what and how of natural farming, here is a look at what exactly natural farming is all about:

“Natural farming also known as organic farming is an ecological farming method introduced by Japanese. This method focuses at avoidance of manufactured inputs and equipments. In addition, natural farming like its name is focussed at cultivation the natural way.” Experts have been stating that the yield produced out of natural farming are filled with the needed nutrients and prove to be a boon when consumed. Therefore, experts have been suggesting various organic farming methods like using of various organic ingredients instead of chemicals to give the plants the needed strength and nutrition to grow. In addition, organic farming methods also include the use of manure made the natural way through animals and compost instead of fertilizers that increase the risk of the affecting the soil quality after a some years. Farmers who opt for natural farming opt for crop rotation to maintain the quality of the soil.

There are many effective ways of protecting the crop through organic farming methods. Instead of pesticides that in addition to protecting the crop, kill the various natural crop protectors like frogs and birds. Therefore, organic farming methods focus at creating new living areas for wasps, bugs, beetles that are considered to be the best natural pesticides. However, here is a look at the glaring difference between natural farming and conventional farming:

1. Conventional method uses the application of chemical fertilizers to the soil to grow crops, whereas organic builds soil through use of natural ways
2. Conventional way of protecting crops is through spraying insecticides and pesticides whereas organic way encourages on relying on natural enemies of pests.
3. In a conventional method, herbicides are used to control or to remove weeds. However, in an organic way, weeds are manually pulled.

Thus, with stark contrast and salient features, it is proved that natural farming is the best. In addition, it is also suggested by many for the following benefits:

a. Helps the farmers to reduce their production cost
b. Helps healthy farms
c. From a long term perspective, natural farming helps save energy and protect the environment too
d. Helps slow down global warming
e. Does not pollute the ground water
f. Helps balance the biodiversity

Thus, with so many benefits many are trying their level best to shift to natural farming. However, to get maximum yields through natural farming, one needs to know the various ways and techniques thoroughly. Therefore, Mahendra Trivedi reviews regularly the various ways and means of natural farming.

Types of Agriculture Pumps

Agriculture Pump 2


Being a farmer, it is always hard for him to find out what works well in his fields. Maintaining the fertility of the soil and keeping it all look green is sometimes one of the hardest battles that a farmer usually face. Unfortunately, if he is not making use of the necessary measures, all his work goes in vain. This is because, other than just maintaining the fertility of the soil there are many other things that are necessary for a farmer to be deemed about. For example, where to get the consistent water flow?…There are basically three factors which are responsible for a high yield in the fields;

Advanced agricultural facilities
Water pumps for irrigation

Due to growing modern technology, many effective equipments have been designed which has put an impact on the growth of crops in the recent years. Let us find out the different types of water pumps which are being used for agriculture purposes nowadays.

Solar pumps

Solar Pumps, as the name signifies work on the sun power and they possess a photovoltaic cell which takes the sun energy to charge up and the pump starts to work pretty similar to the other ones which are electrically driven. Thus, these pumps are always installed having their photovoltaic cells facing the sun. Due to their high efficiency engines, these pumps are capable to pump gallons of water in a minute.

Submersible Pumps

The best thing about these kinds of pumps units is that these pumps work while having submerged inside the well so the noise factor is reduced in this case. A large number of farmers are opting for the usage of these pumps because they offer high efficiencies, low maintenance, and high capacity engines.

Monoblock Pumps

The monoblock series, as the name suggests is comprised of a compact shape and size units and these pumps are being utilized for varied agricultural applications. They are easy to install and operate and are free of any requirements related to couplings and base plates, which is also a factor that these pump units are quite less costly than the other pump systems. Undoubtedly, monoblock pumps offer a convenient solution to drive water rapidly in the big farms.

Booster Pumps

Booster pumps are most demanded among their supporters and these pumps have a big role to play in driving water faster than the normal in your household water lines. These pumps are comprised of an expansion tank and a bladder and they work via generating pressure in the tank.

Water pumps are no wonder a great facility available for an ordinary farmer. It all depends on which water pump you choose among a variety of options that are available to help support your crops grow beyond your expectations. Above article must have provided you the sufficient information about water pumps and so now you can think of buying one depending upon your requirements.

Wish you a good luck!

A Beginners Guide To Services

Requirements for Storing Chemicals

Properly storing chemicals is very important especially for laboratories or research centers. Guidelines from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or OSHA, regarding the proper storage of chemicals should be given importance. Here are the chemical storage requirements that we should comply with.

Simply putting chemicals on shelves is not enough. Because there are different kinds of chemicals they should be separated and storage accordingly. There should be different storage places or cabinets for different kinds of chemicals.

When you are storing chemicals, remember that these chemicals can interact. If there is negative interaction between two types of chemicals, they should be kept far away from each other. Solvents and oxidizing agents should not be put together, and solvents should be kept in cabinets that are fire resistant. Do not put acids (nitric, hydrochloric, and sulfuric) and bases (sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, slaked lime, sodium carbonate, and aqueous ammonia) together in one cabinet. Mixing acids and bases generate heat and thus put the storage facility at risk. Labeling chemical containers is important and for cylindrical ones the label should be on the shoulders.

There should be at least five chemical storage cabinets as recommended by the OSHA. There should be one for general storage where you can put the chemicals depending on their categories or hazardous rating, the acid area where only acids are stored, an area for corrosive acids, one for corrosive bases, and another one for flammable chemicals. These cabinets should be far from sinks or water sources and should always be locked. Take precautions when storing liquid chemicals in cabinets. For better safety, these cabinets should be kept away from the sunlight and placed in cool, dry areas. There should be hazardous signs installed on the doors of the cabinets or storage places.

Since OSHA has no specific color coding system, research facilities and labs are encouraged to create their own color coding system to help identify chemicals quickly. In order to classify chemicals, here is a great color coding scheme to follow: flammable chemicals can be red, reactive or oxidizing agents can be yellow, chemicals hazardous to health can be blue, corrosive chemicals can be white, and chemicals that are moderately hazardous can be green and gray.

Safety storage procedures should be taught to those who handle the chemicals regularly. OSHA recommends that training should be completed every few moths. If there are new chemicals, every staff should know about it and they should be taught on how to properly store it. Chemical storage is very important. The protection of property and personnel are ensured when chemicals are stored properly. The training and qualification of personnel is very important when it comes to handling chemicals.

Source: flood protection barriers

Why People Think Tips Are A Good Idea

What Are The Methods That Can Be Used To Effectively Deal With An Oil Spill?

When using the right type of spill equipment, you are actually preventing a costly accident and environmental damage from happening.

If oils and chemicals are part of your job and you are working with them on a regular basis, there are little chances for you to avoid spills from happening. That is why it is essential to act as quick as possible in term of stopping any oil or chemical spillage from spreading before it gets the chance to reach drains and bodies of water which will result from a bigger environmental problem. If the spillage of oil or chemicals were to be left unattended, then you are causing damage and serious safety threats to the employee since it has a tendency of inflicting injury from the leaking chemicals such by means of slipping or falling. When you create a physical barrier around the spilled liquid, you are actually resolving it as this is an effective way of limiting the overall affected areas and reduces the amount of time needed to do some cleaning up, restoration, restocking and worker’s injuries.

There are actually lost of products being sold in the market nowadays and some of them are used in facilitating a quick and effective confinement for oil and chemicals when they are spilled. Products such as the absorbent socks and booms, they are effectively being used for the purpose of preventing leakage by surrounding the dangerous oils and chemicals and at the same time, absorbing the liquid. If you want to have an oil spill kit and chemical leak kit ready when necessary, you have to know that it includes socks and booms which are effective in cleaning up, absorbing and confining any oil and chemical spillage on your facility. Aside from the absorbent products like the socks and booms, there are also lots of non-absorbent like the non-absorbent dikes and barriers which are effective and ideal in confining all potential and dangerous oil and chemical spillage. They are actually being used to coincide with the oil and chemical absorbent products in providing a great solution for the effectiveness of the oil and chemical confinement and spills clean up. We have gathered and listed some of the products that will surely help you in confining the oil and chemical spills that happen on your facility so that pricey accidents and environmental damage will be prevented.

The purpose behind why an oil and chemical absorbent socks and booms exist is for them to be used in surrounding and confining any form of oil and chemical spills even before they get any chance to spread on any environmental element which may cause more damage. It is also for the better if you are going to choose to use more than one of the oil and chemical socks and booms so that you can create an effective barrier to minimize the spill area or areas.


Take Care If Investing Cash

An individual who would like to invest their cash would like to make a profit on their investments. Along with the proper organizing, this is feasible. Nonetheless, many individuals wind up giving up their particular funds to typical frauds due to the fact they just will not know any better. Along with the world wide web today, it really is very simple to visit a page and find out about precisely what hoaxes are developing and also just how to avoid turning into a victim to one. A small amount of reading may help an individual make sure they really are making the right investments.

The frauds can be hard to spot if someone doesn’t realize just what to look for. If they just start searching for something to invest in and learn about investments which may have a high earning opportunity, they can finish up falling for a fraud. Simply reading that the investment is a great idea isn’t going to make certain they’ll generate profits. Alternatively, they will desire to discover as much as feasible regarding the company ahead of investing. They’ll furthermore wish to take time to learn much more regarding the scams which are widespread to allow them to determine whether the business they may be interested in may be a part of the frauds.

Someone that desires to make investments can Get the facts with regards to frauds online and also go through types of precisely how the scams function as well as precisely how they affect the investors. They will additionally have the ability to browse much more concerning exactly what takes place when the authorities are generally tipped off about potential frauds and why it’s not a good idea to rely on them in order to catch a scam rapidly before there is a chance to invest. They are going to see why discovering the hoaxes is indeed essential when they desire to be able to safeguard their cash and therefore make investments that are going to enable them to generate income.

In case you want to begin investing, Going Here can easily allow you to find out more with regards to the scams which might be commonplace now and exactly how to avoid actually being a target of a scam. In case you happen to be thinking about a web page that tells more about this at length, you can try this out today. Go on and read as much as feasible concerning possible hoaxes prior to investing because the more understanding you’ve the less likely it is you are going to fall victim for a scam.

What I Can Teach You About Options

The Role of Spill Emergency Response

Oil spills could be a serious threat in our environment so we must make sure that we can prevent or stop it right away. The spill must be stop before it could create more hazard and destroy a wide area. For those who won’t clean their mess, a lawsuit may be waiting for them.

Since every company have their harmful chemical discharges, their workers must know how to deal with it in case of emergency. Mostly, certain employees have to do these duty. Problems that could harm our environment won’t happen if this issue will be properly addressed. The oil spill whistle blower just report the whole accident without helping how to stop it.

Right away, the person who has received an official approval, puts a barrier around the affected areas of the spill then displays some warning. We must lock the doors and windows once an oil spill happened inside.

The barrier serves as a sponge that sips the liquid at the same time. Your barrier adsorbents could be a lot of solutions. You can use those absorbents again. If you’re going to use the rubberized one, it will stop but not absorb. These can be used again. During the cleanup process, never use a sandbag. You clean up materials must not cause block in the drainage systems.

The next step after placing the warnings and barricade is for the technician to do his job. The technician will check the impact of the spill as well as the type of chemical in that spill. Some devices could help fasten the job and at the same time, it can provide specific results.

Planning stage come after determining the chemical that affects the spill including the measure of the whole damaged area. In most cases, the compounds that affect the area have no reactions to the chemicals they’re about to absorb. So after absorbing the chemicals, they’re then disposed to a container allowed by OSHA. In case of flammable materials, changes must be applied on the basic steps.

The next stage is to make the contaminated materials environment friendly again and it could be used again or thrown out.

Those people who had a close contact with the spilled and contaminated area and materials are then scheduled for decontamination. Entire cleaning is the one common thing in the decontamination procedure. Someone has to take a shower to remove the cleaning solution within the body. The completion of the decontamination process here.

The citizens must cooperate in order to stop the spill. Try to study your responsibility very well and do it carefully. A variety of this products are available on the internet. Some sites may offer some tutorials on how to stop the spill. There’s always a reason to stop the oil spill.


Why People Think Options Are A Good Idea

Spill Containment in the Workplace

It can be scary to be in a place where an incident of hazardous chemical spill has taken place. The reaction of most people in the event of a spill is to try to do something to prevent it from spreading. This should not be done by ordinary workers. Trying to stop or slow down an unsafe spill is not to be done by workers because they are putting themselves in harm’s way. There are workers who are daily exposed to hazardous agents, and these workers should be given spill containment trainings to let the workers know the proper procedures in containing spills.

Having the right equipment for the spill containment is the best way to do it. Spill pallets and spill containment berms should be available as a primary safeguard against spills. Perhaps the best weapon for this is to make sure that there is proper management of production and storage areas which are the most common places where spills take place. Transportation corridors should be given the same amount of attention. Channeling a spill safely into a secure temporary or disaster holding spaces away from sparks, open flames, electrical circuits, and people is one great solution and all workers need to do is to evacuate.

Chemical storage in the form of external storage tanks can overfill or deteriorate, which can be a cause of leaking. Diking can be a solution to this problem. To prevent the distribution of the spilled or leaked liquids, the dikes have to surround the tanks to collect the spills. Depending on the volume of the tank, the method is mandated by law and recommended by OSHA.

These dikes and barriers are very useful but consideration should also be made for vehicular traffic in the storage space itself. Make sure that OSHA does not prohibit installing dikes near chemical containers like they do for certain chemicals.

Diatomaceous earth is also highly recommended by the OSHA to control spills. This is a chalk-like substance that you can spread to stop potential hazardous liquids. The effect of this method is a successful stoppage of the spill to spread around. Using diatomaceous earth can be a competent option for contain a spill.

There are also chemicals that can be sprayed to the spill through pressurized applicators. These chemicals can stop the progress of the spreading substance. Fumes can be reduced by this chemical as well as it can solidify the hazardous substance in question. These chemicals can harden the substance, or change them chemically to change its combustibility. This way it can be safely disposed of once the danger is over. Fast-acting agents can also used to produce quick barriers because they can affect the primary edges of a spill to swiftly lost its fluidity.